使用Workers自定义CDN缓存策略取代Cloudflare Page Rule

Cloudflare一直是我非常喜欢的厂商,免费的套餐就可以提供不错的服务,只不过现在被玩坏了,国内访问速度大不如前,但是总体来说有还是比没有强。

不过免费版套餐的Cloudflare CDN有个非常致命的缺点,就是不能根据cookie来区分访客,从而针对性提供访问内容(比如不为登陆、评论过的用户提供缓存)。并且还会把已登录或已评论用户的信息缓存上去,这点难以接受,也是我抛弃Cloudflare的重要原因之一。

不过在Cloudflare Workers面世后,这个问题就迎刃而解了,我们可以使用Workers来绕过这个限制,自己编写缓存策略。

使用Workers自定义CDN缓存策略

介绍

关于Cloudflare Workers的介绍可以自行搜索,通过搜索引擎看到本文人或许应该已经有所了解。

我简单阐述一下,本文要讲的内容,就是通过Cloudflare官方曾编写的一款脚本,实现自定义缓存策略。

Edge Cache HTML

Cloudflare官方曾编写的一款WordPress插件,用以搭配edge-cache-html,不过这个项目已经快两年没更新了,应该是觉得这个项目会影响到他们付费套餐的出售。

https://github.com/cloudflare/worker-examples/tree/master/examples/edge-cache-html

目前这个脚本直接使用,是无法在WordPress下生效的,并且缺失URL路径规则。我稍作修改,增加了路径排除和支持在WordPress下是缓存(去除header cache判断)。

前期操作请参考 [WordPress]利用 Cloudflare Workers 来缓存博客的 HTML 网页 ,写的非常详细,只不过这位博主没有没有缓存成功。

以下是修改后的脚本

// IMPORTANT: Either A Key/Value Namespace must be bound to this worker script 
// using the variable name EDGE_CACHE. or the API parameters below should be 
// configured. KV is recommended if possible since it can purge just the HTML 
// instead of the full cache. // Default cookie prefixes for bypass
  const DEFAULT_BYPASS_COOKIES = [
      "wp-",
      "wordpress",
      "comment_",
      "woocommerce_"
    ];
    
  // URL paths to bypass the cache (each pattern is a regex)
  const BYPASS_URL_PATTERNS = [
      /\/wp-admin\/.*/,
      /\/wp-adminlogin\/.*/
    ];
  
    /**
     * Main worker entry point. 
     */
    addEventListener("fetch", event => {
      const request = event.request;
      let upstreamCache = request.headers.get('x-HTML-Edge-Cache');
    
      // Only process requests if KV store is set up and there is no 
      // HTML edge cache in front of this worker (only the outermost cache 
      // should handle HTML caching in case there are varying levels of support).
      let configured = false;
      if (typeof EDGE_CACHE !== 'undefined') {
        configured = true;
      } else if (CLOUDFLARE_API.email.length && CLOUDFLARE_API.key.length && CLOUDFLARE_API.zone.length) {
        configured = true;
      }
    
      // Bypass processing of image requests (for everything except Firefox which doesn't use image/*)
      const accept = request.headers.get('Accept');
      let isImage = false;
      if (accept && (accept.indexOf('image/*') !== -1)) {
        isImage = true;
      }
    
      if (configured && !isImage && upstreamCache === null) {
        event.passThroughOnException();
        event.respondWith(processRequest(request, event));
      }
    });
    
    /**
     * Process every request coming through to add the edge-cache header,
     * watch for purge responses and possibly cache HTML GET requests.
     * 
     * @param {Request} originalRequest - Original request
     * @param {Event} event - Original event (for additional async waiting)
     */
    async function processRequest(originalRequest, event) {
      let cfCacheStatus = null;
      const accept = originalRequest.headers.get('Accept');
      const isHTML = (accept && accept.indexOf('text/html') >= 0);
      let {response, cacheVer, status, bypassCache} = await getCachedResponse(originalRequest);
    
      if (response === null) {
        // Clone the request, add the edge-cache header and send it through.
        let request = new Request(originalRequest);
        request.headers.set('x-HTML-Edge-Cache', 'supports=cache|purgeall|bypass-cookies');
        response = await fetch(request);
    
        if (response) {
          const options = getResponseOptions(response);
          if (options && options.purge) {
            await purgeCache(cacheVer, event);
            status += ', Purged';
          }
          bypassCache = bypassCache || shouldBypassEdgeCache(request, response);
          if ((!options || options.cache) && isHTML &&
              originalRequest.method === 'GET' && response.status === 200 &&
              !bypassCache) {
            status += await cacheResponse(cacheVer, originalRequest, response, event);
          }
        }
      } else {
        // If the origin didn't send the control header we will send the cached response but update 
        // the cached copy asynchronously (stale-while-revalidate). This commonly happens with 
        // a server-side disk cache that serves the HTML directly from disk.
        cfCacheStatus = 'HIT';
        if (originalRequest.method === 'GET' && response.status === 200 && isHTML) {
          bypassCache = bypassCache || shouldBypassEdgeCache(originalRequest, response);
          if (!bypassCache) {
            const options = getResponseOptions(response);
            if (!options) {
              status += ', Refreshed';
              event.waitUntil(updateCache(originalRequest, cacheVer, event));
            }
          }
        }
      }
    
      if (response && status !== null && originalRequest.method === 'GET' && response.status === 200 && isHTML) {
        response = new Response(response.body, response);
        response.headers.set('x-HTML-Edge-Cache-Status', status);
        if (cacheVer !== null) {
          response.headers.set('x-HTML-Edge-Cache-Version', cacheVer.toString());
        }
        if (cfCacheStatus) {
          response.headers.set('CF-Cache-Status', cfCacheStatus);
        }
      }
    
      return response;
    }
    
    /**
     * Determine if the cache should be bypassed for the given request/response pair.
     * Specifically, if the request includes a cookie that the response flags for bypass.
     * Can be used on cache lookups to determine if the request needs to go to the origin and
     * origin responses to determine if they should be written to cache.
     * @param {Request} request - Request
     * @param {Response} response - Response
     * @returns {bool} true if the cache should be bypassed
     */
    function shouldBypassEdgeCache(request, response) {
      let bypassCache = false;
    
      // Bypass the cache for all requests to a URL that matches any of the URL path bypass patterns
      const url = new URL(request.url);
      const path = url.pathname + url.search;
      if (BYPASS_URL_PATTERNS.length) {
          for (let pattern of BYPASS_URL_PATTERNS) {
              if (path.match(pattern)) {
                  bypassCache = true;
                  break;
              }
          }
      }
  
      if (request && response) {
        const options = getResponseOptions(response);
        const cookieHeader = request.headers.get('cookie');
        let bypassCookies = DEFAULT_BYPASS_COOKIES;
        if (options) {
          bypassCookies = options.bypassCookies;
        }
        if (cookieHeader && cookieHeader.length && bypassCookies.length) {
          const cookies = cookieHeader.split(';');
          for (let cookie of cookies) {
            // See if the cookie starts with any of the logged-in user prefixes
            for (let prefix of bypassCookies) {
              if (cookie.trim().startsWith(prefix)) {
                bypassCache = true;
                break;
              }
            }
            if (bypassCache) {
              break;
            }
          }
        }
      }
    
      return bypassCache;
    }
    
    const CACHE_HEADERS = ['Cache-Control', 'Expires', 'Pragma'];
    
    /**
     * Check for cached HTML GET requests.
     * 
     * @param {Request} request - Original request
     */
    async function getCachedResponse(request) {
      let response = null;
      let cacheVer = null;
      let bypassCache = false;
      let status = 'Miss';
    
      // Only check for HTML GET requests (saves on reading from KV unnecessarily)
      // and not when there are cache-control headers on the request (refresh)
      const accept = request.headers.get('Accept');
      const cacheControl = request.headers.get('Cache-Control');
      let noCache = false;
      // if (cacheControl && cacheControl.indexOf('no-cache') !== -1) {
      //   noCache = true;
      //   status = 'Bypass for Reload';
      // }
      if (!noCache && request.method === 'GET' && accept && accept.indexOf('text/html') >= 0) {
        // Build the versioned URL for checking the cache
        cacheVer = await GetCurrentCacheVersion(cacheVer);
        const cacheKeyRequest = GenerateCacheRequest(request, cacheVer);
    
        // See if there is a request match in the cache
        try {
          let cache = caches.default;
          let cachedResponse = await cache.match(cacheKeyRequest);
          if (cachedResponse) {
            // Copy Response object so that we can edit headers.
            cachedResponse = new Response(cachedResponse.body, cachedResponse);
    
            // Check to see if the response needs to be bypassed because of a cookie
            bypassCache = shouldBypassEdgeCache(request, cachedResponse);
          
            // Copy the original cache headers back and clean up any control headers
            if (bypassCache) {
              status = 'Bypass Cookie';
            } else {
              status = 'Hit';
              cachedResponse.headers.delete('Cache-Control');
              cachedResponse.headers.delete('x-HTML-Edge-Cache-Status');
              for (header of CACHE_HEADERS) {
                let value = cachedResponse.headers.get('x-HTML-Edge-Cache-Header-' + header);
                if (value) {
                  cachedResponse.headers.delete('x-HTML-Edge-Cache-Header-' + header);
                  cachedResponse.headers.set(header, value);
                }
              }
              response = cachedResponse;
            }
          } else {
            status = 'Miss';
          }
        } catch (err) {
          // Send the exception back in the response header for debugging
          status = "Cache Read Exception: " + err.message;
        }
      }
    
      return {response, cacheVer, status, bypassCache};
    }
    
    /**
     * Asynchronously purge the HTML cache.
     * @param {Int} cacheVer - Current cache version (if retrieved)
     * @param {Event} event - Original event
     */
    async function purgeCache(cacheVer, event) {
      if (typeof EDGE_CACHE !== 'undefined') {
        // Purge the KV cache by bumping the version number
        cacheVer = await GetCurrentCacheVersion(cacheVer);
        cacheVer++;
        event.waitUntil(EDGE_CACHE.put('html_cache_version', cacheVer.toString()));
      } else {
        // Purge everything using the API
        const url = "https://api.cloudflare.com/client/v4/zones/" + CLOUDFLARE_API.zone + "/purge_cache";
        event.waitUntil(fetch(url,{
          method: 'POST',
          headers: {'X-Auth-Email': CLOUDFLARE_API.email,
                    'X-Auth-Key': CLOUDFLARE_API.key,
                    'Content-Type': 'application/json'},
          body: JSON.stringify({purge_everything: true})
        }));
      }
    }
    
    /**
     * Update the cached copy of the given page
     * @param {Request} originalRequest - Original Request
     * @param {String} cacheVer - Cache Version
     * @param {EVent} event - Original event
     */
    async function updateCache(originalRequest, cacheVer, event) {
      // Clone the request, add the edge-cache header and send it through.
      let request = new Request(originalRequest);
      request.headers.set('x-HTML-Edge-Cache', 'supports=cache|purgeall|bypass-cookies');
      response = await fetch(request);
    
      if (response) {
        status = ': Fetched';
        const options = getResponseOptions(response);
        if (options && options.purge) {
          await purgeCache(cacheVer, event);
        }
        let bypassCache = shouldBypassEdgeCache(request, response);
        if ((!options || options.cache) && !bypassCache) {
          await cacheResponse(cacheVer, originalRequest, response, event);
        }
      }
    }
    
    /**
     * Cache the returned content (but only if it was a successful GET request)
     * 
     * @param {Int} cacheVer - Current cache version (if already retrieved)
     * @param {Request} request - Original Request
     * @param {Response} originalResponse - Response to (maybe) cache
     * @param {Event} event - Original event
     * @returns {bool} true if the response was cached
     */
    async function cacheResponse(cacheVer, request, originalResponse, event) {
      let status = "";
      const accept = request.headers.get('Accept');
      if (request.method === 'GET' && originalResponse.status === 200 && accept && accept.indexOf('text/html') >= 0) {
        cacheVer = await GetCurrentCacheVersion(cacheVer);
        const cacheKeyRequest = GenerateCacheRequest(request, cacheVer);
    
        try {
          // Move the cache headers out of the way so the response can actually be cached.
          // First clone the response so there is a parallel body stream and then
          // create a new response object based on the clone that we can edit.
          let cache = caches.default;
          let clonedResponse = originalResponse.clone();
          let response = new Response(clonedResponse.body, clonedResponse);
          for (header of CACHE_HEADERS) {
            let value = response.headers.get(header);
            if (value) {
              response.headers.delete(header);
              response.headers.set('x-HTML-Edge-Cache-Header-' + header, value);
            }
          }
          response.headers.delete('Set-Cookie');
          response.headers.set('Cache-Control', 'public; max-age=315360000');
          event.waitUntil(cache.put(cacheKeyRequest, response));
          status = ", Cached";
        } catch (err) {
          // status = ", Cache Write Exception: " + err.message;
        }
      }
      return status;
    }
    
    /******************************************************************************
     * Utility Functions
     *****************************************************************************/
    
    /**
     * Parse the commands from the x-HTML-Edge-Cache response header.
     * @param {Response} response - HTTP response from the origin.
     * @returns {*} Parsed commands
     */
    function getResponseOptions(response) {
      let options = null;
      let header = response.headers.get('x-HTML-Edge-Cache');
      if (header) {
        options = {
          purge: false,
          cache: false,
          bypassCookies: []
        };
        let commands = header.split(',');
        for (let command of commands) {
          if (command.trim() === 'purgeall') {
            options.purge = true;
          } else if (command.trim() === 'cache') {
            options.cache = true;
          } else if (command.trim().startsWith('bypass-cookies')) {
            let separator = command.indexOf('=');
            if (separator >= 0) {
              let cookies = command.substr(separator + 1).split('|');
              for (let cookie of cookies) {
                cookie = cookie.trim();
                if (cookie.length) {
                  options.bypassCookies.push(cookie);
                }
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    
      return options;
    }
    
    /**
     * Retrieve the current cache version from KV
     * @param {Int} cacheVer - Current cache version value if set.
     * @returns {Int} The current cache version.
     */
    async function GetCurrentCacheVersion(cacheVer) {
      if (cacheVer === null) {
        if (typeof EDGE_CACHE !== 'undefined') {
          cacheVer = await EDGE_CACHE.get('html_cache_version');
          if (cacheVer === null) {
            // Uninitialized - first time through, initialize KV with a value
            // Blocking but should only happen immediately after worker activation.
            cacheVer = 0;
            await EDGE_CACHE.put('html_cache_version', cacheVer.toString());
          } else {
            cacheVer = parseInt(cacheVer);
          }
        } else {
          cacheVer = -1;
        }
      }
      return cacheVer;
    }
    
    /**
     * Generate the versioned Request object to use for cache operations.
     * @param {Request} request - Base request
     * @param {Int} cacheVer - Current Cache version (must be set)
     * @returns {Request} Versioned request object
     */
    function GenerateCacheRequest(request, cacheVer) {
      let cacheUrl = request.url;
      if (cacheUrl.indexOf('?') >= 0) {
        cacheUrl += '&';
      } else {
        cacheUrl += '?';
      }
      cacheUrl += 'cf_edge_cache_ver=' + cacheVer;
      return new Request(cacheUrl);
    }

 

在worker上部署好脚本后,就可以添加域名了,想使用cname接入的Cloudflare,可以参考 针对使用Cloudflare CDN国内网站的速度优化方案 这篇文章。

安装WordPress Page Cache Plugin

非常简单,在WordPress中上传插件cloudflare-page-cache即可,这个插件没有图形界面,无需任何设置,在每次触发缓存更新策略时会自动更新html_cache_versioncloudflare页面缓存插件

值得一提的是,目前这个插件有一个缺点,触发缓存更新后,所有页面缓存都会失效,不过后面有NGINX Cache顶着,到也影响不大。

从能用到好用-快速搭建高性能WordPress指南

 

Cloudflare Page Rule设置

需要禁止Cloudflare Page Rule缓存,直接如图设置即可,让Cloudflare Page Rule缓存所有的话,会把用户信息缓存上去,现在所有的规则交给Edge Cache HTML就可以了。

禁止Cloudflare Page Rule缓存

一件部署插件

如果上述操作对于你来说还是太难了,这里还有一件部署插件Edge Cache HTML via Cloudflare Workers

 

我对Edge Cache HTML via Cloudflare Workers这款插件稍作修改,添加了我修改的脚本(edge-cache-html-cloudflare-workers下载),使之能够正常缓存。

填写Cloudflare E-mailCloudflare API Key,然后保存、安装即可。

Cloudflare Edge缓存设置

之后添加router,和Workers KV就可以使用了。

HTML页面edge缓存状态

后记

我现在已经转移到国内服务器了,用不上了。实际上,如果缓存上了,效果还是相当显著的,我当时的TTFB大概是160ms。如果你的服务器不在国内,相当建议你使用Cloudflare Edge Cache HTML 缓存你的网站。

via 《sleele的博客》,稍有改动。

参考文章

  1. [WordPress]利用 Cloudflare Workers 来缓存博客的 HTML 网页
  2. cloudflare worker-examples Edge Cache HTML
  3. Fake and free Bypass-on-Cookie, with CloudFlare edge cache workers for WordPress
  4. Cloudflare WordPress Edge Caching via Workers

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